Electrochemical CO2 reduction to value-added chemical feedstocks is of considerable interest for renewable energy storage and renewable source generation while mitigating CO2 emissions from human activity. Copper represents an effective catalyst in reducing CO2 to hydrocarbons or oxygenates, but it is often plagued by a low product selectivity and limited long-term stability. Now Choi and colleagues reported that copper nanowires with rich surface steps to catalyze a chemical reaction that reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions while generating ethylene (C2H4), an important chemical used to produce plastics, solvents, cosmetics and other important products globally.
Using copper to kick start the carbon dioxide reduction into ethylene reaction has suffered two strikes against it.
First, the initial chemical reaction also produced hydrogen and methane — both undesirable in industrial production.
Second, previous attempts that resulted in ethylene production did not last long, with conversion efficiency tailing off as the system continued to run.
To overcome these two hurdles, Professor Goddard III and colleagues focused on the design of the copper nanowires with highly active steps — similar to a set of stairs arranged at atomic scale.
One intriguing finding of this collaborative study is that this step pattern across the nanowires’ surfaces remained stable under the reaction conditions, contrary to general belief that these high energy features would smooth out.
This is the key to both the system’s durability and selectivity in producing ethylene, instead of other end products.
The scientists demonstrated a carbon dioxide-to-ethylene conversion rate of greater than 70%, much more efficient than previous designs, which yielded at least 10% less under the same conditions.
The new system ran for 200 hours, with little change in conversion efficiency, a major advance for copper-based catalysts.
In addition, the comprehensive understanding of the structure-function relation illustrated a new perspective to design highly active and durable carbon dioxide reduction catalyst in action.
References: Choi, C., Kwon, S., Cheng, T. et al. Highly active and stable stepped Cu surface for enhanced electrochemical CO2 reduction to C2H4. Nat Catal (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-00504-x link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41929-020-00504-x