In 2000, Ridgely proposed an approach which leads to creation of macroscopic amounts of exotic matter (EM). Many researchers at that time showed that existence of EM or in other words negative energy (NE) is “almost” necessary for traversable wormholes (TWs) & wrap drives (WDs). The word “almost” is because there is comment about violation of weak energy condition (WEC) with no need to EM such as creation & control of massive scalar or massless scalar, nutrino, Brans-Dicke (BD), & so on fields. But they don’t seem to delete engineering problems which an advanced civilization must do for creation, stabilization & control of TWs or WDs completely.
Mansooryar is one of the first, who showed that nano scale plates may be useful. He not only described the process of suitable extraction of energy from vacuum but also showed that what kind of casimir plates may be applied for support of traversable wormholes (TWs) & warp drives (WDs) and for the production of exotic matter. I will explain each and everything given in his paper to you. Lets start first with fundamental assumptions:
Well, by using Ridgley’s results for two parallel perfect conducting square plates (given below):
He showed that if zero point field (ZPF) performs positive work in a localized region of spacetime then NE density of the system arises. By the way, there is no difference between inertial properties of EM & common matter.
Next, he showed what kind of casimir plates exactly required to produce exotic matter.
In order to find the exact properties of suitable Casimir plates, he first assumed a pair of flat structures (plates) which are composed of some conductive quantums. For his purpose a few properties of plates & condition are desired:
(1) The shape of plates should be square or rectangular or circular. Square is because easy calculation but circular is for more output of collection (fig 1). As reader knows circle is the extreme area in a flat plate. By the way due to U ∝ L² increasing the area is very important.
(2) According to Milton, dependence of Casimir energy to mass is described by:
here µ denotes mass for the scalar field. So less massive quantums (molecules or atoms) , more output of collection.
He showed that:
(3) The “plates” should be as much as possible “flat” & a proper topology must be available. So molecules should be as much as possible tiny in particular if there are a few of them.
(4) The plates should be light because zero point energy should be extracted more and more & a little of it should move the plates.
(5) The plates should be as much as possible thin because more volume of vacuum need to be covered and dug.
(6) Evidently more conductive plates is better & superconductivity should be considered.
(7) All factors leading to friction should be diminished to all forces be conservative. Less wasting is more needed.
(8) According to Milton, there is a contrary dependence between Casimir force & growing temperature:
So temperature of the surrounding should be low.
He didn’t stop here, he not only raised an important question in his paper, “Can we extract NE from vacuum?”, but also answered it too in his next paper.
His calculations showed that with a reachable number of plates it is possible to extract sufficient NE (dependent to elegance of operation from ~ hundreds to billions number of plates & distance between them from picometers to nano-meters) needed for producing exotic matter (EM).
Reference: Mohammad Mansooryar, “A special kind of Casimir plates for making exotic matter”, Astronomical Journal, pp. 1-7, 2003. https://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0310099
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