In 2004, Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz obtained that the accretion of phantom energy leads to a gradual increase of the wormhole throat radius which eventually overtakes the superaccelerated expansion of the Universe and becomes infinite at a time in the future before the occurrence of the big rip singularity. After that time, as it continues accreting phantom energy, the wormhole becomes an Einstein-Rosen bridge whose corresponding mass decreases rapidly and vanishes at the big rip.
In 2004, Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz had shown that phantom/ dark energy can results in achronal cosmic future where the wormholes become infinite before the occurence of the big rip singularity. To show this he considered the wormhole with the throat radius of, b0 = 10¯33 cm (Planck scale). It was shown by him that if p = – (1+ ϵ) c²ρ is a fluid’s equation of state, then
where, b(t) is the throat radius of a Morris-Thorne wormhole and D is dimensionless quantity. According to Pedro, we can choose D ∼ 4. The above equation describes the changing of the b(t) with regard to the phantom energy’s accretion. Integration of this equation gets us
we get, b(t˜) = ∞. As we can see t < t˜∗, and therefore this universe indeed will be achronal before the occurance of the big rip. In accord to Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz, at t >t˜, while in process of the phantom energy’s accretion, the wormhole becomes an Einstein-Rosen bridge which can, in principle, be used by the future advanced civilizations in their efforts to escape from the big rip. However, in this activity the future civilizations will have to face but another problem: an “extremely stringent information’s bound”. What is it actually?
Well, don’t worry i will explain it in the next part of this article..
Reference: Pedro F. González-Día, “Achronal Cosmic Future”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 071301 – Published 13 August 2004. https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.071301
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