Previously on “Can We Able to Escape Big Rip? PART 2: Berkenstein Bound”, we saw that during 1980’s, Sir Berkenstein proposed Berkenstein Bound in which, it was showed that the largest amount of information to be processed and therefore sent through the Einstein-Rosen Bridge is no greater than 68.66 bits. So, it’s not at all possible for humans to escape big rip through a wormhole. The only way to save life is to “prevent” big rip. And that’s not at all possible without quantum effects. Without quantum you’re dead. So lets see how it will prove “lifesaver” if someday future singularity happens.
Guys, the knowledge of the dark energy equation of state parameter w is extremely important due to various reasons. According to current astrophysical data this parameter is close (above or below) to – 1. If it less than – 1 then such dark energy (of phantom sort) drives the universe to finite time future singularity (Big Rip) with catastrophic consequences for future civilizations. According to various estimations in this case the universe will exist for several more billions of years at best, before ending up in a cosmic doomsday. How realistic is such sudden future singularity? Is it common property of only dark energy with w less than – 1? The partial answer to second question is given by Barrow in his paper, where it was shown that even for usual matter (and when strong energy condition is not violated!) the sudden future singularity may occur.
The another half answer given by Nojiri and Odintsov in their paper. They argued that near to future singularity the quantum effects may become dominant and they can stop (or delay) the finite time future singularity (i.e. Big rip). The same occurs for brane sudden singularities. This indicates that future Quantum Gravity era is quite possible and deserves some attention.
Near the (future) singularity, the curvatures and their derivatives with respect to “t” become large. Since the quantum correction includes the powers of the curvatures and their t-derivatives, the correction becomes large and important near the singularity. It may occur that it delays (or stop) the singularity in the analogy with trace anomaly driven inflation.
When approaching the sudden future singularity (i.e. Big rip), the curvature invariants grow and typical energies increase. This indicates that quantum gravity effects should become significant near future singularity. It may delay or even stop big rip.— told Shinichi Nojiri, lead author of the study.
Taking into account back reaction of conformal quantum fields near singularity, they demonstrated explicitly that quantum effects may delay (or make milder) the singularity.
The singularity becomes much milder due to the quantum correction. Quantum effects may stop further evolution into the singularity what decreases the typical energies like dark energy.— told Odintsov, second author of the study.
They also argued that if the evolution to singularity is realistic, due to quantum effects the universe may end up in deSitter phase before scale factor blows up. This picture is generalized for braneworld where sudden singularity may occur on the brane with qualitatively similar conclusions.
Reference: (1) Shinichi Nojiri, Sergei D. Odintsov, “Quantum escape of sudden future singularity”, Physics Letters B,
Volume 595, Issues 1–4, 2004, Pages 1-8, ISSN 0370-2693,
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269304009232) (2) John D. Barrow, “Sudden Future Singularities”, Astronomical Journal, pp. 1-5, 2005. https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0403084
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