# Does Microscopic Black Holes Accelerates Within Stellar Material? (Quantum Physics / Astronomy)

Mikhail Shubov in his work presented a case in which Microscopic Black Holes (MBH) of mass 1016 kg to 3 × 1019 kg experience acceleration as they move within stellar material at low velocities

It was suggested in previous studies that Primordial Black Holes make up a significant fraction of dark matter. Microscopic Black Holes [MBH] can also be formed within stars by coalescence of dark matter composed of weakly interacting massive particles. Up to now, researchers believed that all MBH captured by a star would be slowed down within stellar material until they settle in the stellar center. Now, Mikhail Shubov explored the possibility of MBH accelerating during their passage through matter. His study appeared on Journal Astrophysics and Space Science.

According to him, as the MBH passes through matter, it accretes material at a rate (M˙) and generates energy by accretion. Most of the accreted mass is absorbed by the MBH, while about 0.5% of the mass is turned into the energy of gamma and proton radiation. This radiation heats and rarefies the surrounding material. Dense material ahead of moving MBH exerts greater gravitational pull on the moving MBH than the rarefied material behind it. As a result, the moving MBH experiences a net forward force. We call this force the “MBH ramjet force”. He illustrated the effect below on Fig. 1.

He first, derived the conditions under which MBH accelerates within the stellar material. In order to express these conditions mathematically, he define three efficiencies (gas redistribution efficiency, radiative efficiency, accretion efficiency) involved in the MBH passage through stellar material. I am defining them below:

• Gas redistribution efficiency, ηG , is the ratio of the accelerating force caused by gas rarefication behind the MBH to theoretical maximum of such force. It is expressed as, ηG = r1/r2
• Radiative efficiency, ηΓ , is the ratio of the total power radiated by MBH to the energy of the mass falling into MBH. It is expressed as P = ηΓc²M˙
• Accretion efficiency, ηA, is the ratio of the actual and the zero-radiation mass capture rates. It is expressed as:

Later he demonstrated that, in the MBH passing through stellar material at supersonic and subsonic speeds will experience acceleration rather than deceleration as long as

He also showed that MBH moving with supersonic speed always experience deceleration within stellar material. While, MBH moving at subsonic speed experiences acceleration when the Mach number exceeds M0 (the equilibrium Mach number) and deceleration when the Mach number is below M0.

In addition, he mentioned that, if microscopic black holes exist in the universe, many of them may have settled into an intrastellar orbit within the interiors of many stars including sun. These MBH on intrastellar orbits, may produce several physically observable effects. First, these MBHs may trigger Type 1a supernovas. The minimal mass of MBHs capable of igniting Type 1a supernovas remains to be calculated. Second, one or more MBHs may be orbiting within the Sun. Sonic waves produced by these MBHs may be detectable using helioseismology – the studying of the solar structure by observing the vibrations of Sun’s photosphere.

“This work and the hypothesis described therein are purely theoretical. Nevertheless, if the hypothesis about MBH orbiting within Solar material is observationally validated, then we may obtain additional knowledge about interaction of particles at very high energies. Even if extra knowledge in areas of physics which are considered purely theoretical at this point bring no immediate technological progress, such knowledge may bring technological advances in the coming decades. In particular, this knowledge may be especially useful in Colonization of Solar System, which is the subject of interest for a broad scientific community.

— concluded author of the study

Reference: Shubov, M.V. Ramjet acceleration of microscopic black holes within stellar material. Astrophys Space Sci 364, 220 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10509-019-3707-9

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