How SARS-CoV-2 Promotes Inflammation? (Biology)

Juan Robles and colleagues revealed for the first time that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 promotes endothelial inflammation through integrin α5β1 and NF-κB pathway. Their study recently appeared in BioRxiv.

Endothelial cells (ECs) mostly exist in the inner layer of all blood vessels and are normally protected by pericytes. They form a critical interface between blood and tissues that maintains whole-body homeostasis. In COVID-19, disruption of the EC barrier results in edema, vascular inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and coagulation, the hallmarks of the severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which EC are dysregulated in COVID-19 are unclear. Now, Juan Robles and colleagues revealed that the spike activates NF-κB pathway through its interaction with integrin α5β1 in EC to elicit inflammation and leukocyte infiltration.

They also suggested that spike promotes hyperpermeability of EC monolayers and leukocyte adhesion via integrin α5β1 by regulating Rho GTPases and eNOS phosphorylation, and we can prevent or block the leukocyte adhesion and hyperpermeability in response to spike and spike receptor-binding domain by using ‘volociximab’, which is a chimeric anti-integrin α5β1 monoclonal antibody and ‘ATN-161’, which is the integrin α5β1 binding peptide.

“Our findings uncover a new direct action of SARS-CoV-2 on EC dysfunction and introduce integrin ⍺5β1 as a promising target for treating vascular inflammation in COVID-19.”

— they concluded.

Their work was supported by grants A1-S-9620B and 289568 from “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología” (CONACYT) to C.C. Magdalena Zamora is a doctoral student from ‘Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)’ and received fellowship 768182 from CONACYT.

Reference: Juan Pablo Robles, Magdalena Zamora, Gonzalo Martinez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp, “The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces endothelial inflammation through integrin α5β1 and NF-κB”, bioRxiv 2021.08.01.454605; doi:

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