Tag Archives: #alien

An (Almost) Alien Message For the INAF Antennas (Astronomy)

Last spring the Sardinia Radio Telescope inaugurated the observations dedicated to the Seti project. Today, July 30, 2021, some small antennas installed next to the large dish have picked up, together with an INAF antenna in Bologna, a simulated “alien” signal, launched by a satellite of the Italian company D-Orbit. The search for extraterrestrial life also passes through these experiments

We would have liked to surprise you with an Orson Welles-style message but, especially these days, we would have risked a complaint for alarm. Yet we are really working on receiving signals from alien intelligence, improving the technologies in the field from time to time.

For example, the Sardinia Radio Telescope ( Srt ) of San Basilio, one of the largest and most advanced radio telescopes in Europe, has finally entered full operation in the Seti (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) project. In fact, the first observations began last March, as scheduled, thanks to the tireless work of Andrea Melis, engineer technologist of INAF of Cagliari and member of the Seti committee within the International Academy of Astronautics (Iaa).

«In 2021», says Melis, «the Sardinia Radio Telescope became part of the telescope network of the Breakthrough Listen program . The main targets are the most promising exoplanets and the center of the Milky Way. The data analysis is already underway, about one hundred hours of dedicated observations, by colleagues from the University of Berkeley. After the Srt upgrade is completed, we will be able to expand the frequency range from the current 26 GHz to over 100 GHz, a unique feature for which Srt has been chosen to complement the Green Bank Telescope for the high frequency Seti. “.

But it is not only the Sardinia Radio Telescope that is involved in Seti observations. Alongside the 64-meter main dish, a series of small low-frequency omnidirectional antennas, called “ Vivaldi antennas ” , have been installed since 2016 , placed on the ground within a circle also 64 meters in diameter.

From left, Andrea Melis, Francesco Gaudiomonte and Adelaide Ladu, the team of INAF engineers who installed the antennas and monitored the experiment (click to enlarge). Credits: Paolo Soletta / Inaf Cagliari

This is the Saad (Sardinia Aperture Array Demonstrator) project, curated by the INAF of Cagliari in order to test the potential of the large networks of low-frequency telescopes of the future, such as the Ska project , still to be built, or the Dutch Lofar network , inaugurated in 2012.

And it is precisely some of these small antennas that recorded, on Friday 30 July 2021 at 15:55, a very particular signal launched by a satellite built and sent into orbit by the Italian aerospace company D-Orbit . This is the famous message of Arecibo , designed by astrophysicist Frank Drake and sent to deep space in 1974 by the Puerto Rican radio telescope unfortunately recently collapsed and consequently decommissioned. The intent, then, was to reach some form of intelligent life in the globular cluster of Hercules , an area rich in stars about 23,000 light years away from us.

Today, however, after almost half a century, the Arecibo message has been sent by the Italian satellite – called Ion ( In orbit now ) Scv Dauntless David – towards the Earth, and in particular towards the radio telescopes of the National Institute of Astrophysics. However, from a citizen science perspective , even amateur radio groups could be involved in this type of observations in the future.

On the left the signal received in Bologna, on the right the one received in San Basilio, Sardinia. For a few minutes, during its orbit around the Earth at about 500 km altitude, D-Orbit’s Ion Scv Dauntless David satellite launched an encrypted signal that has been successfully recorded by the INAF antennas but which must now be analyzed and decoded to understand the actual ability of our technology in the interpretation of possible alien electromagnetic signals. Credits: Inaf

The antennas of Bologna and Cagliari turned on to pick up the signal from D-Orbit which, in fact, simulated an alien source. The satellite began to be visible in radio waves at 15:55 and passed through for a few minutes until it disappeared a few seconds after 16:00.

The scenario, which in the next experiments will evolve towards increasingly complex tests, does not only contemplate the technical capacity of receiving a coded signal, but also the capacity for coordination and communication in case of reception of a real alien signal and all the implications of cultural and social character that this would entail.

Indeed, the interface between Seti, D-Orbit and Inaf was not a pool of astrophysicists or experts in satellite telecommunications, but an Italian artist who currently lives in the Netherlands: Daniela De Paulis , who has been working alongside and integrates her artistic activity with that of radio equipment and radio telescopes operator. De Paulis is also a member of the Seti committee of the Iaa, together with Andrea Melis, Stelio Montebugnoli of the INAF of Bologna and many other Italians, as can be read on the page dedicated to members from about fifteen countries. And it is precisely through Seti that the artist came into contact with the radio astronomers of INAF.

«The project», says De Paulis, «will last about two years: we will involve other scientific institutes and international radio telescopes, using messages made specifically with a group of specialists: philosophers, anthropologists, radio astronomers. The aim is to involve both the scientific community involved in SETI and the general public in receiving and interpreting a possible extraterrestrial signal, simulating in an experiential way a hypothetical scenario in which, as a human species, we are faced with the actual existence of a extraterrestrial intelligence. On an artistic level, it is a global performance, in which scientists and the public will interact via a digital platform, ideally crossing the terrestrial cultural barriers ».

The title of the project, A Sign in Space (a sign in space), is inspired, as in many of the artist’s works, by the title of the homonymous story in Italo Calvino’s Cosmicomics collection .

The reception of this signal by the two INAF radio telescopes is an important experimental verification of this project, which combines art and science in an unusual way and which does not stop there, rather it is only at the beginning.

“We have also decided to participate as a Medicine group”, adds Stelio Montebugnoli of the INAF of Bologna, “because in our country the Seti has historically started at the Medicine radio astronomy station in the early nineties – and interest is still very much alive for this very important program, for the scientific and even more philosophical aspect, for man. As Seti advisor to the scientific direction of INAF, I am very satisfied with this experiment, as it allows us to simulate the reception of a signal whose structure is not known (theoretically) – in practice, the modulation – and the real exercise will be that to extract some information from the received signal ».

Featured image: In the foreground on the right, the “Vivaldi” antenna which successfully picked up the signal sent by the Italian satellite of the D-Orbit. In the background the Sardinia Radio Telescope of San Basilio, near Cagliari. Credits: Paolo Soletta / Inaf Cagliari

Provided by INAF

Complex Molecules Could Hold The Secret To Identifying Alien Life (Astronomy / Biology)

A new system capable of identifying complex molecular signatures could aid in the search for alien life in the universe and could even lead to the creation of new forms of life in the laboratory, scientists say.

University of Glasgow researchers have developed a new method called Assembly Theory which can be used to quantify how assembled or complex a molecule is in the laboratory using techniques like mass spectrometry. The more complex the object, the more unlikely that it could arise by chance, and the more likely it was made by the process of evolution.

The Glasgow team, led by Professor Lee Cronin, developed Assembly Theory in partnership with collaborators at NASA and Arizona State University. Together, they have shown that the system works with samples from all over the earth and extra-terrestrial samples. 

The system uses mass spectrometry to break the molecule into bits and counts the number of unique parts. The larger the number of unique parts, the larger the assembly number and the team have been able to show that life on earth can only make molecules with high assembly numbers.

One of the main challenges of the search for extraterrestrial life has been identifying which chemical signatures are unique to life, leading to several ultimately unproven claims of the discovery of alien life. The metabolic experiments of NASA’s Viking Martian lander, for example, only detected simple molecules whose existence could be explained by natural non-living processes in addition to living processes.

In a new paper published today in the journal Nature Communications, the team describes a universal approach to life detection.

Professor Cronin, Regius Professor of Chemistry at the University of Glasgow, said: “Our system is the first falsifiable hypothesis for life detection. It’s based on the idea that only living systems can produce complex molecules that could not form randomly in any abundance. This allows us to sidestep the problem of defining life – instead we focus on the complexity of the chemistry.”

Lee Cronin RSC
L. Cronin © University of Glasgow

The theory of molecular assembly can also be used to explain that the larger the number of steps needed to deconstruct a given complex molecule, the more improbable it is that the molecule was created without life.

This decomposition provides a complexity measure, called the molecular assembly number. Unlike all other complexity approaches, however, it is the first to be  experimentally measurable. The team demonstrated was possible to experimentally observe the molecular assembly number of single molecules in the lab by deconstructing them using fragmentation tandem mass spectrometry. Thus, the complexity measure is distinct from all other complexity measures because it is both computable and directly observable.

A life detection instrument based on this method could be deployed on missions to extra-terrestrial locations to detect biosignatures, or even detect the emergence of new forms of artificial life in the lab. 

Professor Cronin added: “This is important because developing an approach that cannot produce false positives is vital to support the first discovery of life beyond Earth, an event that will only happen once in human history.”

The research was supported by funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), The John Templeton Foundation, the European Research Council (ERC), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Featured image: An abstract scene of assorted molecules floating in space © University of Glasgow

Reference: Marshall, S.M., Mathis, C., Carrick, E. et al. Identifying molecules as biosignatures with assembly theory and mass spectrometry. Nat Commun 12, 3033 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23258-x

Provided by University of Glasgow

In Search of Extraterrestrial Signals (Astronomy)

Breakthrough Listen and Kaggle have devised a challenge to sift through radio telescope data for alien signals. Participants are asked to identify anomalous signals artificially inserted in the scans of the targets of the Green Bank Telescope, in order to identify new algorithms for the recognition of extraterrestrial signals

Are we alone in the universe? This has always been one of the deepest and most intriguing questions of mankind. As technology improves, we are finding new and increasingly powerful ways to seek answers. The Breakthrough Listen team at the University of California, Berkeley , is using the world’s most powerful telescopes to scan millions of stars for artificial signs produced by possible alien technology. Now Kaggle – an online community of data scientists and machine learning professionals affiliated with Google Llc – decided to help the team of researchers to interpret the signals collected by these telescopes, sifting them as they once did with gold.

The Breakthrough Listen team is part of the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (Seti) and uses the largest orientable dish on the planet, the 100-meter-diameter Green Bank Telescope (Gbt). As in any Seti research, the hope is to be able, sooner or later, to communicate. Humans have built an enormous number of radio devices but, despite this, looking for an alien transmission is like looking for a needle in a huge haystack… a haystack of data collected by modern technology.

As the title suggests, this is the signal from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. Even though it is 20 billion kilometers from Earth, it was clearly detected by the GBT.  The first, third and fifth panels are target “A” (the spaceship, in this case).  The yellow diagonal line is the radio signal from Voyager, the signal of which is detected when heading towards the spacecraft and disappears when pointing away.  In this graph, it is a diagonal line because the relative motion of the Earth and the spacecraft imparts a Doppler drift, causing the frequency to change over time.  Credits: Breakthrough Listen / Kaggle

Currently, methods of looking for these needles in the haystack use two filters. First, the scans of the targets (the target stars of the survey) are interspersed with scans of other regions of the sky. Reasonably, any signals that appear in both sets of scans do not come from the target star. Second, the data analysis pipeline rejects signals that do not change their frequency, as this most likely means that they are in close proximity to the telescope, as a moving source would have a Doppler shift related to its velocity. These two filters are quite effective, but they can be improved.

Kaggle has devised a competition in which participants are asked to identify anomalous signals in the scans of the Breakthrough Listen targets, in order to identify new algorithms for recognizing extraterrestrial signals. Since there are no confirmed examples of alien signals to be used to train machine learning algorithms, the team has included some simulated signals (called ‘needles’) in the telescope’s data haystack, identifying some so they can be used to train the model. to find others.

The challenge started two weeks ago and there are already 547 registered teams. There is time until July 22 to register – alone or as a team – and until July 29 to propose an algorithm. The one who can identify the most needles will win a cash prize ($ 6,000 for first place, $ 5,000 for second and $ 4,000 for third) and, more importantly, may have the potential to answer one of the biggest questions. of science.

Featured image credit: Green Bank Observatory / National Science Foundation / Breakthrough Listen / University of California, Berkeley SETI Research Center

To know more:

Provided by INAF

How To Detect Extraterrestrial Life On Proxima B? (Astronomy)

Elisa Tabor and Abraham Loeb investigated the possibility of detecting artificial lights from proxima b. They found that James Webb Space Telescope will be able to detect LED type artificial lights. Their study recently appeared in Arxiv.

Proxima b as we all know, is one of the best targets outside of solar system in the search for extraterrestrial life. It resides in the habitable zone of its star “Proxima Centauri”. Recent study, suggested that Proxima Centauri b can sustain enormous areas of liquid water on its surface, potentially raising its prospects for harboring extraterrestrial life. The important question is, how can we detect it?

In 2011, Turner and Loeb proposed a concept which relies on the assumption that any intelligent life that evolved in the light from its nearest star is likely to have artificial lights that switches on during the hours of darkness. Considering this, Tabor and Loeb now examined how can we detect such artificial lights originating from Proxima b.

“Proxima Centauri b orbits in its star’s habitable zone, so it’s likely that the planet has become tidally locked with a permanent dayside and nightside. This exacerbates the need for artificial illumination that switches on during the hours of darkness.”

According to authors, if Proxima b has a permanent day and nightside, the civilization might illuminate the nightside using mirrors launched into orbit or placed at strategic points. In that case, the lights shining onto the permanent nightside should be extremely powerful, and thus more likely to be detected with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

“We have simulated lightcurves from Proxima b and compared curves corresponding to the reflected stellar spectrum to curves with artificial lights corresponding to a narrower spectrum such as for LEDs”

They have found that JWST will be able to show the existence of artificial illumination for standard LEDs 500 times more powerful than those currently found on Earth’s, and for artificial illumination of similar magnitude to Earth’s for a spectrum 10³ times narrower in frequency.

“We find that the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to detect LED type artificial lights making up 5% of stellar power with 85% confidence and for the current level of artificial illumination on Earth, the spectral band must be 10³ times narrower.”

Finally, they concluded that, even if JWST will not be able to detect artificial illumination on Proxima b, future observatories like Large UV Optical Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) might be able to detect this artificial illumination.

Figure 1. The lightcurves from Proxima b calculated using Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), with three different coefficients Fai representing the percentage of stellar power being illuminated on the dark side of the planet. The blue curve represents Fai = 0.1, which equals the value they assume for the albedo. Thus the amount of artificial illumination on the night side is equal to the amount of light reflected from the day side. The green curve, for Fai = 0, represents no artificial illumination, so the night side is fully dark. Top panel: the planet to star ratio depends solely on the lune width. Bottom panel: the ratio depends on time (in days), orbital angular frequency, and inclination. © Tabor and Loeb

Reference: Elisa Tabor, Abraham Loeb, “Detectability of Artificial Lights from Proxima b”, Arxiv, pp. 1-4, 2021. https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.08081

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Mushrooms On Mars? Five Unproven Claims That Alien Life Exists (Astronomy)

recent study claims to have found evidence for mushroom-like life forms on the surface of Mars. As it happens, these particular features are well known and were discovered by cameras aboard Nasa’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shortly after it landed in 2004.

They are not, in fact, living organisms at all, but “haematite concretions” – small sphere-shaped pieces of the mineral haematite, and their exact origin is still debated by scientists. Haematite is a compound of iron and oxygen and is commercially important on Earth. The spherical rocks on Mars may have been created by the gradual accumulation of the material in slowly evaporating liquid water environments. They could also have been produced by volcanic activity.

Either way, mushrooms they are not. The area around Opportunity’s landing site is littered with them – they can be seen all over the surface and were also found buried beneath the soil and even embedded within rocks.

Fossilised worms

These space “mushrooms” were not the first claim of alien life. On August 7, 1996, the then US president Bill Clinton stood on the White House lawn and announced the possibility that scientists had discovered the ancient, fossilised remains of micro-organisms in a meteorite that had been recovered from Antarctica in 1984.

The meteorite, ALH 84001, is one of a handful of rocks we have from Mars. These were blasted off the surface of the planet by volcanic eruptions or meteorite impacts, drifted through space probably for millions of years, before ending up on Earth.

Image of the tube-like structures in meteorite.
High-resolution scanning electron microscope image of the structures. NASA

The tiny structures discovered within, using powerful microscopes, resemble microscopic worm-like organisms and are likely to be billions of years old. Debate over the true origins of these structures continues today – many scientists have pointed out that well known inorganic processes are quite capable of producing structures which resemble living organisms. In other words, simply because something might look a bit like life (mushrooms or otherwise), that does not mean it is.

Mystery gases

In the 1970s Nasa’s Viking robotic landers carried a series of experiments designed to test the Martian soil for the presence of microorganisms.

The experiments chemically treated small samples of Martian soil in reaction chambers on board the landers. In one of them, nutrients containing radioactive carbon-14 were added to the soil samples. In theory, this should be absorbed by any growing and multiplying microbes. The carbon-14 would then increasingly be “breathed out” over time, showing a steady increase in concentration within the reaction chamber.

After the chemical analyses, each soil sample was steadily heated to hundreds of degrees to destroy any microbes, with the intention of seeing whether any such reactions in the soil ceased. Intriguingly, this particular experiment did show a steady increase in carbon-14 over time which was indeed terminated after heating to above the boiling point of water. Several inorganic chemical reactions have been proposed as an explanation. These results therefore remain inconclusive and are still debated today.

More recently, minute quantities of methane have been found in the Martian atmosphere. This is also intriguing as living organisms on Earth are known to release methane. Once again, however, it must be stressed that this not conclusive proof of life. Methane can also be produced by several inorganic processes, including by heated rocks.


In 1977, the Big Ear radio telescope  in the US detected an unusual radio signal while scanning the sky. The signal lasted for just a couple of minutes, was very high powered and was detected over a narrow range of frequencies. These factors make it quite difficult to envisage a natural cause, as most natural radio sources can be detected across a wide range of frequencies.

The exact signal has not been detected again since, despite frequent radio surveys of the same part of the sky. The signal was so remarkable at the time that the astronomer on duty, Jerry Ehman, circled the print out of the signal with red pen and wrote “Wow!” next to it.

Various explanations have been proposed over the years including, recently, that the signal was generated by a passing comet, or transmissions from an Earth-orbiting satellite. The exact origin of the Wow! signal is still not fully agreed upon today, and remains an intriguing mystery.

Tabby’s Star

A key tool of planet hunting is the dimming method – observing light from a star to see if it periodically dips in a regular fashion as an orbiting planet passes in front of it. In 2015, professional astronomers working with citizen scientists from the Planet Hunters project announced the discovery of a nearby star displaying unusually strong and consistent dimming over time.

Artist's impression of an alien megastructure.
Alien megastructure? Droneandy/Shutterstock

Tabby’s Star is named after astronomer Tabitha Boyajian who was lead author on the paper announcing the discovery. Data from the Kepler Space Telescope showed not just a regular dimming, as one might expect from a planetary orbit, but highly irregular dips in the light and, interestingly, a consistent decrease in light output over several years.

This highly unusual behaviour prompted numerous theories to explain the observations, including cometary dust or debris from a massive impact gradually spreading out to cover the face of the star. Some also speculated that these were signatures of an advanced alien species building a structure around the star. But further observations have found no corroborating evidence to support this possibility. For example, radio telescopes have failed to detect any unusual radio emissions from the star. Today, the scientists behind the discovery believe that the unusual dips in light are caused by clouds of cosmic dust passing across the face of the star.

As exciting as they are, it is important to treat claims of alien life with a healthy dose of scepticism, and this is indeed what scientists do. No conclusive evidence that extraterrestrial life exists has been found … yet.

Featured image: Mushroom-like structures on Mars. Credit: NASA

Provided by The Conversation

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

What Science Revealed About Chupacabra?: PART 2 (Science)

PREVIOUSLY ON WHO IS CHUPACABRA, We saw chupacabra is a blood sucking creature .. There are many conspiracy theories on this creature like many people believe it’s a blood sucking vampire, but also many people who believe that origin of this creature can be traced back to government facility , ‘Arecibo observatory’.. They think that experiments done at Arecibo summoned the chupacabra.. But, what Science says about chupacabra, is chupacabra real? If yes, did we found him and if not, who is the real chupacabra killing those livestock? I know there are many questions in your mind and don’t worry after reading this article till end. You will get all your answers. So lets see,

Artist impression of chupacabra ©yavshoke

In 1974, scientists transmitted the Arecibo message beaming description of our planet, our DNA and location of our solar system deep into the cosmos in a hope that one day it will reach extraterrestrial life. A leading chupacabra creation myth theories that extraterrestrial replied to the Arecibo Message sending scientists genetic code to create alien hybrid. While this theory is outside of our world one thing is undeniable i.e. lifestock killings so what’s killing them??

Well, recently Dr. Olivares analyzed the dead bodies of livestock from bercelonta. He observed there are bite wounds on the neck area and by using X ray he revealed that there’s also damage inside, like the neck is broken and separated. By comparing the bite marks with dog skull ‘mandible maxilla’ he revealed that this can be done by the dog.. And the bite marks came from upper canine and lower canine.. He also said that due to overpopulation dogs in Puerto Rico don’t act like domesticated..

X ray image of victim hen with broken neck revealed by olivares © Olivares

Yeah friends, overpopulation causing them to behave in a very wild manner. If you are not aware of psychology, let me tell you its a process called “rewinding”. Successive generations of dogs born without a home or human contact reverting to a primal or more aggressive state. He said that dogs in this situation could kill animals for sport. And there’s more science behind it.

Several years ago, a Rancher in Ceuro Texas claimed she found the carcass of chupacabra, though DNA tests reveled that its also a dog of sorts coyote with mange and remember that popular theory that extraterrestrials sent scientists at Arecibo the genetic recipe to create hybrid. This story look familiar to 1995 movie “Species”. The alien in that movie look similar to chupacabra it turns there may be reason for that.

When Ben Radford from discovery interviewed Madeline, the first person who claimed to see chupacabra, he found that she saw that film weeks before her encounter. Although she stands by her terrifying sighting but it seems as though it may have been coloured by Science fiction. Ernesto also trapped one creature in one of his surveillance cameras which looks similar to chupacabra, but, that footage too doesn’t reveal that it was really a chupacabra. So, as per science the mystery of chupacabra is solved.

Reference: (1) The Chupacabra becomes a recurring legend, 6 May 1996, by Robert Friedman, Princeton university https://www.princeton.edu/~accion/chupa27.html (2) Josh gates, “Expedition Unknown”, 2019. Episode 7 season 8.

Copyright of this article totally belongs to uncover reality. One is allowed to use it only by giving proper credit to its author S. Aman or either to us.

Who is Chupacabra: A Vampire, An Alien or A Creature? (Biology / Zoology)

Chupacabra is a legendary creature in the folklore of parts of the Americas, with its first purported sightings reported in Puerto Rico in 1995. Eight sheep were discovered dead, each with three puncture wounds in the chest area and reportedly completely drained of blood.

When Josh Gates, a renowned archeologist, asked people and one biologist about the appearance. They describe that the creature have red eyes, purportedly a heavy creature the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. Some called him vampire or either an alien.

Chupacabra ©pininterest

Not only in Puerto Rica but eyewitness sightings have been claimed to be reported as far north as Maine, as far south as Chile, and even outside the Americas in countries like Russia and the Philippines. Many of the reports have been disregarded as uncorroborated or lacking evidence. Sightings in northern Mexico and the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange. According to biologists and wildlife management officials, the chupacabra is an urban legend.

The most common description of the chupacabra is that of a reptile-like creature, said to have leathery or scaly greenish-gray skin and sharp spines or quills running down its back. It is said to be approximately 3 to 4 feet (0.9 to 1.2 m) high, and stands and hops in a fashion similar to that of a kangaroo.

Chupacabra ©yavshoke

Another common description of the chupacabra is of a strange breed of wild dog. This form is mostly hairless and has a pronounced spinal ridge, unusually pronounced eye sockets, fangs, and claws. Unlike conventional predators, the chupacabra is said to drain all of the animal’s blood (and sometimes organs) usually through three holes in the shape of a downwards-pointing triangle, but sometimes through only one or two holes.

Guys, for now Chupacabra’s existence is still in question and we still don’t know whether chupacabra is a blood sucking vampire, an alien or some kind of creature because we haven’t spotted one yet. But according to prediction of 2011 study, there are some 8.7 million species on the earth and we have identified only 1.6 million of them. Maybe chupacabras are one of those species we haven’t spotted yet. Future researches may help find this amazing alien creature. I am waiting for that day, don’t you?

References: (1) Radford, Benjamin (2011). Tracking the Chupacabra: The Vampire Beast in Fact, Fiction and Folklore. ISBN 978-0-8263-5015-2. (2) González Rodríguez, Miried (24 September 2002). “Disfrazado el chupacabras” [Disguised as chupacabras]. Primera Hora (in Spanish). Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April  2018. (3) “chupacabras”. Diccionario Clave. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. states that both singular and plural is chupacabras. (4) Reportaje: Ataque a gallinas en el sector Seburuquillo de Lares [Report: Attack on hens in the Seburquillo sector of Lares] (News segment) (in Spanish). Mundo Ovnis. Retrieved 20 June 2020 – via YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0F3i6vAXIzQ

Copyright of this article totally belongs to uncover reality. One is allowed to use it only by giving proper credit either to author S. Aman or to us.

Alberto Callebro Suggested Several Candidate Sources For WOW Signal (Astronomy)

Alberto Caballero identified and suggested several candidate sources for the WOW! Signal. In the region ranging from 19h25m31s ± 10s to −26°57′ ± 20′, and 19h28m22s ± 10s to −26°57′ ± 20′, a total of 66 G and K-type (i.e. our sun-like) stars were found by him in the Gaia DR2 archive. Out of this sample, two stars are close to the celestial distance with the highest chance of having a communicative civilization, according to Maccone’s mathematical estimations.

Figure 1: In red, the two regions where the WOW! Signal could have originated. Source: Pan-STARRS/DR1

As of October 2020, the WOW! Signal remains the strongest candidate SETI signal. It has been suggested that the signal was produced by hydrogen clouds from Comets 266/P Christensen and P/2008 Y2. However, this hypothesis has been dismissed by the scientific community, and the source of the signal remains unknown. Despite the WOW! Signal never repeated, the key aspect was its duration. The signal lasted for 72 seconds, but since this was the maximum amount of time that the Big Ear radio telescope was able to observe, it is likely that the signal would have lasted longer. The main problem, however, is that the signal never repeated. Follow-up observations of the area conducted by many observatories during several years never detected another signal. Nonetheless, the fact that the signal never repeated, does not necessarily discard that it was produced by extraterrestrial intelligence.

“In fact, if we analyse the history of (the few) radio signals that humanity have sent to several targets in the hope of contacting a civilization, none of those transmissions had a long duration or were repeatedly sent for a long time. An extraterrestrial civilization could have opted to behave in a similar manner.”, said Alberto Callebro.

According to Alberto, the only potential Sun-like star in all the WOW! Signal region appears to be 2MASS 19281982-2640123. Despite this star is located too far for sending any reply in the form of a radio or light transmission, it could be a great target to make observations searching for exoplanets around the star.

Figure 2: The only potential Sun-like star found in the WOW! Signal region with the available data
Source: PanSTARRS/DR1

However, more information such as metallicity, age, and presence or not of stellar companions is needed in order to determine that 2MASS 19281982-2640123 is indeed a Sun-like star. Moreover, another 14 potential Sun-like stars in the WOW! Signal region were found in the Gaia Archive, but the estimations on their luminosity were unknown.

Figure 3: List of G and early-to-mid K type stars in the WOW! Signal region, positive feed horn
Source: ESA
Figure 4: List of G and early-to-mid K type stars in the WOW! Signal region, negative feed horn
Source: ESA

He also mention that the signal could have come from any of the 66 G and K-type stars, a star that only meets one or two of the parameters set for the optimistic sample (in the WOW! Signal region, a total of 550 stars with a temperature between 4,450 and 6,000 K were found, but no information about their luminosity and radius is available), stars that are not included in the Gaia Archive, a star that is too dim to image with current technology, an extragalactic source, or any other origin.

In any case, since all these stars are located in the same part of the sky, it is ideal to search for exoplanets in the whole region where the WOW! Signal could have come from.

References: Alberto Caballero, “An approximation to determine the source of the WOW! Signal”, pp. 1-6, ArXiv, 2020. https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.06090v1

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Are Aliens Secretly Studying Life On Earth From AFar? The Zoo Hypothesis Say Yes (Astronomy / Aliens)

Running into an alien on the bus would be strange — but it’s almost equally strange that humankind has never encountered aliens. The universe is vast. Can we really be alone in it?

Think about it: What are the chances that life on Earth is the only life in the impossibly gigantic universe? There are probably 100 Earth-like planets for every grain of sand in the world, yet we’ve never even heard from an extraterrestrial life form. No “Hey” — not even a “U up?” Why?

We’re not the first people to wonder. Enrico Fermi, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, also thought it was odd. As he famously put it to his friends in the cafeteria one day: “Where is everybody?” In 1950, this became formalized as the Fermi paradox. How can we have not one scrap of evidence aliens exist, when it’s overwhelmingly likely that they do?

You might assume aliens are just too far away, but Fermi wasn’t swayed by that argument. An alien civilization with a solid space program could make rapid imperial progress, Fermi argued. He estimated it would take just 10 million years for an alien civilization to take over our entire galaxy. They’ve had tons of chances when you consider that the Milky Way Galaxy has been around for 10 billion years.

One explanation of the Fermi paradox is the zoo hypothesis. It’s admittedly a freaky situation to consider, but here it is: aliens know we earthlings are here, but they’re purposely avoiding contact with us, opting to study us from afar instead.

This hypothesized answer to the Fermi Paradox was proposed by MIT astronomer John A. Ball in 1973. It’s named the zoo hypothesis because it suggests that all life on Earth is just like an animal (or, you know, a few billion animals) at the zoo — look, but don’t touch! Ball suggests that maybe alien civilizations are advanced enough to know not to influence our primitive society, or not to get involved with other intelligent lifeforms.

Overall, Ball laid out 10 possible solutions to Fermi’s Paradox. The zoo hypothesis covers just two of them: in one, aliens find us “of some interest” and study us casually; in the other, aliens find us “interesting” and pay closer attention. In both scenarios, though, they’re actively avoiding us. Harsh.

In an even harsher solution, outside the zoo hypothesis, aliens know about us and don’t care. In this scenario, “We pose no threat, and we have nothing they want,” Ball writes. “This is a likely but a very unpopular answer, for it seems to downgrade mankind’s importance, and we do like to feel important.”

A more popular answer to the Fermi Paradox is that alien life is still very primitive or has already come and gone. At this point, it’s really anyone’s guess. So if you want to assume we’re a Very Important Species, at this point, go ahead. Why not?