Tag Archives: #covid

People With 5 Or More Symptoms in First Week Of Infection More Likely To Develop Long COVID (Medicine)

The presence of more than five symptoms of COVID-19 in the first week of infection is significantly associated with the development of long COVID, irrespective of age or gender, according to a new University of Birmingham-led review.

The review by the University of Birmingham-led the Therapies for Long COVID (TLC) Study Group, published today in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, summarises current research on symptom prevalence, complications and management of long COVID. Pooled prevalence data in the review highlights the ten most common symptoms of long COVID. These are fatigue, shortness of breath, muscle pain, cough, headache, joint pain, chest pain, altered smell, diarrhoea and altered taste.

The researchers identified two main symptom clusters of long COVID: those comprising exclusively of fatigue, headache and upper respiratory complaints; and those with multi-system complaints including ongoing fever and gastroenterological symptoms.

Lead author Dr Olalekan Lee Aiyegbusi, Deputy Director at the University of Birmingham’s Centre for Patient Reported Outcomes Research (CPROR), said: “There is evidence that the impact of acute COVID-19 on patients, regardless of severity, extends beyond hospitalisation in the most severe cases, to ongoing impaired quality of life, mental health and employment issues. People living with long COVID generally feel abandoned and dismissed by healthcare providers and receive limited or conflicting advice. More than one-third of the patients in one of the studies included in the review reported they still felt ill or in a worse clinical condition at eight weeks than at the onset of COVID-19.”

Dr Shamil Haroon, Clinical Lecturer in Primary Care and co-Principal Investigator of the University of Birmingham NIHR/UKRI funded TLC Study, further commented: “Neither the biological or immunological mechanisms of long COVID, nor the rationale for why certain people are more susceptible to these effects, are yet clear, limiting development of therapies. It is essential we act quickly to address these issues.”

In a comparison with other coronaviruses, the researchers suggest that in the longer term, patients with long COVID may also experience a similar disease trajectory to that of patients who had SARS or MERS, pointing to analysis showing that six months after hospital discharge, approximately 25% of patients hospitalised with SARS and MERS had reduced lung function and exercise capacity.

TLC Study’s Co-Principal Investigator Melanie Calvert, Professor of Outcomes Methodology at the University of Birmingham and NIHR Senior Investigator, said: “The wide range of potential symptoms and complications patients with long COVID may experience highlights the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical course of the condition. There is an urgent need for better, more integrated care models to support and manage patients with long COVID to improve clinical outcomes.”


Reference: Aiyegbusi et al (2021). ‘Symptoms, complications and management of long COVID: a review’. Royal Society of Medicine. DOI: 10.1177/01410768211032850


Provided by University of Birmingham

Delaying Second COVID Vaccine Dose May Prevent Deaths Under Certain Conditions (Medicine)

Delay strategy, at least for people under 65, could reduce deaths by up to 20%, say researchers

Delaying the second dose of covid-19 vaccines, at least for people aged under 65, could result in up to 20% lower mortality, but only under certain conditions, finds a US study published by The BMJ today.

These conditions include a one dose vaccine effectiveness (efficacy) of 80% or higher and vaccination rates of 0.1% to 0.3% of the population per day. If these conditions apply, the researchers say the strategy could prevent between 47 and 26 deaths per 100,000 people, respectively.

Both the Pfizer and Moderna covid-19 vaccines in a standard two dose schedule are highly effective at preventing symptomatic infections and death. But immunity worldwide remains low, partly owing to low vaccination rates.

The longer it takes to effectively vaccinate the global population, the greater the likely risk of vaccine resistant strains developing. This has led to calls to prioritise single dose vaccination for as many people as possible, even if this means delaying a second dose beyond the studied time frame.

The justification for this relies on the assumption that meaningful protection against covid-19 can be achieved after a single dose of vaccine, but this is the subject of intense debate.

To explore this further, a team of US researchers set out to measure the impact of delayed second dose vaccine policies on infections, hospital admissions, and deaths compared with the current on-schedule two dose regimen.

Using a simulation model based on a “real-world” sample population of 100,000 US adults, they ran a series of scenarios to forecast potentially infectious interactions under different conditions over a six-month period.

These included varying levels of vaccine efficacy and administration rates, and varying assumptions as to whether the vaccine prevents transmission and serious symptoms or only prevents serious symptoms, including death.

They also examined the impact of delaying second doses for those younger than 65, but not before fully vaccinating older people.

The results suggest that under specific conditions a decrease in cumulative mortality, infections, and hospital admissions can be achieved when the second vaccine dose is delayed.

The study replicated the simulations several times and used that data to estimate different population-level outcomes. For example, for a first dose efficacy of 80% and a daily vaccine administration rate of 0.1%, 0.3% and 1% of the population, the estimated total mortality per 100,000 for the delayed versus standard second-dose administration were 402 versus 442, 204 versus 241, and 86 versus 50, respectively.

These results suggest that a delayed second dose strategy is optimal for vaccination rates at or lower than 0.3% population per day if the vaccine efficacy from one dose is 80% or greater.

What’s more, the delayed second dose strategy for people under 65 performed consistently well under all vaccination rates tested, resulting in absolute cumulative mortality reductions up to an estimated 48 per 100,000.

These two conditions seem reasonable on the basis of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of first dose vaccine efficacy being 80% and only a couple countries such as the US and UK reaching a vaccination rate close to 1%, explain the researchers.

They acknowledge some study limitations based on assumptions used in the model, but they aimed to capture the relevant complex human interaction that are critical in covid-19 transmission, across a timeframe that is useful to decision makers. As such, they say these results may be broadly informative for covid-19 vaccine strategy.

“Decision makers will need to consider their local vaccination rates and weigh the benefits of increasing these rates by delaying a second dose versus the risks associated with the remaining uncertainty in this strategy,” they write. “These decisions should continue to be re-evaluated as new data become available,” they add.


Reference: Santiago Romero-Brufau, Ayush Chopra, Alex Ryu et al., “Public health impact of delaying second dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 covid-19 vaccine: simulation agent based modeling study”, BMJ 2021; 373 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1087 (Published 12 May 2021)


Provided by BMJ

Pulse Oximeters More Useful in COVID Screening for Older Adults (Medicine)

People have become accustomed to having their temperature checked during the pandemic because fever is a key indicator of COVID-19.

A new commentary by Washington State University College of Nursing Associate Professor Catherine Van Son and Clinical Assistant Professor Deborah Eti proposes that taking a temperature is a less useful indicator of infection in older adults and that a pulse oximeter be used instead.

The paper, published in Frontiers in Medicine, said baseline temperatures are lower in older adults. A lower baseline temperature means a fever may be overlooked using the CDC’s standard definition of 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or greater.

“In fact,” the paper says, “upwards of 30% of older adults with serious infections show mild or no fever.”

Other common signs of COVID may also be dismissed and attributed to aging, such as fatigue, body aches and loss of taste or smell.

Additionally, some COVID-19 patients have no visible signs of having low oxygen levels, such as shortness of breath, yet have oxygen saturation below 90%. Such asymptomatic hypoxia can be associated with extremely poor outcomes.

Van Son and Eti say inexpensive, portable pulse oximeters should be considered for wide use in COVID-19 screenings of older adults because the devices can detect changes in oxygen saturation without other indications of infection.

“Detecting (asymptomatic hypoxia) is critical for the prevention of infection progression and initiating treatment,” they wrote. “Earlier interventions could help patients avoid highly invasive procedures (i.e., intubation) and improve the allocation of scarce healthcare resources.”

The creation of the commentary paper was supported by the Waldron O. & Janet S. Professorship in Geriatrics, focused on improving the lives of older adults. 


Reference: Catherine R. Van Son and Deborah U. Eti, “Screening for COVID-19 in Older Adults: Pulse Oximeter vs. Temperature”, Front. Med., 14 April 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.660886


Provided by Washington State University

Immune System, Not COVID Virus, May Pose Greatest Risk to Pregnant Women (Medicine)

For reasons not yet clear, pregnant women infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 are more likely to experience preterm births, pre-eclampsia, and other neonatal problems than non-infected women.

A team of Yale scientists decided to investigate whether the virus could be affecting placental tissue of infected expectant mothers. Their analysis found that while evidence of the virus in the placenta is rare, the placenta in infected mothers tended to exhibit a much higher level of immune system activity than those of non-infected pregnant women, they report April 22 in the journal Med.

“The good news is the placenta is mounting a robust defense against an infection that is far distant, in lungs or nasal tissue,” said Shelli Farhadian, assistant professor of internal medicine (infectious diseases) and neurology at Yale and co-corresponding author. “On the other hand, the high level of immune system activity might be leading to other deleterious effects on the pregnancy.”

The team headed by Farhadian and Akiko Iwasaki, the Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Immunobiology at Yale, analyzed blood and placental tissue in 39 infected mothers as well as COVID-free expectant mothers at different stages of pregnancy. While they found evidence of the virus in only two samples of placental tissue, they did find ACE2 receptors — which the SARS-CoV-2 virus uses to enter cells — in the placentas of most women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Those receptors had largely disappeared in healthy women at later stages of pregnancy.

“It is very important to closely monitor expectant mothers who become infected early in pregnancy,” Farhadian said.

Immune system activity in the placenta during infections like COVID-19 has not been extensively studied and it is not known whether other types of infections would behave similarly to SARS-CoV-2, she said.

Alice Lu-Culligan is lead author of the study, which was primarily funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Emergent Ventures Fund at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University.


Reference: Alice Lu-Culligan, Arun R. Chavan et al., “Maternal respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with robust inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface”, Med, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2021.04.016


Provided by Yale

Duke-Led Team Finds Why Women May Be Better Equipped to Fight COVID (Medicine)

When it comes to COVID-19, women seem to be the stronger sex, suffering severe disease at about half the rate as men, but the reason for this has been elusive.

Now a chance experiment by an ophthalmology researcher at Duke Health has led to an insight: Women have more of a certain type of immune cell that fights infections in mucosal tissue, and these immune cells amass in the lungs, poised to attack the COVID virus. 

“Better armed with these specialized immune cells, women appear to be more equipped to fight some of the most severe impacts of COVID-19, notably the respiratory infections that can become life-threatening,” said Daniel Saban, Ph.D., an associate professor in Duke’s Department of Ophthalmology and in the Department of Immunology.

Saban, who led the study that appears online in the Cell Press journal Med, said the investigation began last spring as COVID first spread and he was sidelined from his normal caseload studying eye diseases. A piece of equipment in his lab – a device that can perform 36-color flow cytometry – was sitting idle, so he decided to use it to examine blood samples from COVID patients.

“We didn’t start with a hypothesis,” Saban said. “It was a completely unbiased approach, where we asked our colleagues to provide blood and tissue samples from COVID patients as well as healthy people. We had no idea what we would find, if anything.”

Saban and the members of his lab, including Chen Yu, Ph.D. and Sejiro Littleton, quickly saw that a white blood cell called mucosal associated invariant T cells, or MAIT cell, circulated more abundantly in the blood from healthy women compared to healthy men. MAIT cells are highly specialized white blood cells that contribute to immune defenses in mucosal organs and tissues. 

Among COVID patients, however, there were few MAIT cells circulating in the blood, even among women, where the population of MAIT cells radically fell off, leading the researchers to question where these cells had gone. 

They found their answer in tissue samples from the lungs of COVID patients. Overall, there were an abundance of MAIT cells in the lung tissue of people with COVID, but upon closer inspection, they found night-and-day differences between the sexes.

“We first found this dichotomy in healthy blood,” Saban said. “Circulating MAIT cells in women expressed genes indicative of a robust profile poised for fighting an infection, but this was not the case in males. Then we looked in the tissue and were able to find evidence of this same pattern by sex.”

Saban said there are numerous examples of sexual differences in the immune responses to infections, noting those differences have been prevalent all along with COVID-19. 

“Our findings uncover a female-specific protective profile carried out by these MAIT cells, and this could potentially help guide the development of treatments and therapies,” he said.

In addition to Saban, Yu and Littleton, study authors include Nicholas S. Giroux, Rose Mathew, Shengli Ding, Joan Kalnitsky, Yuchen Yang, Elizabeth W. Petzold, Hong A. Chung, Grecia O. Rivera, Tomer Rotstein, Rui Xi, Emily R. Ko Ephraim L. Tsalik, Gregory D. Sempowsk, Thomas N. Denny, Thomas W. Burke, Micah T. McClain, Christopher W. Woods and Xiling Shen. 

The study received support from This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which is part of the National Institute of Health (U01AI066569, UM1AI104681), the U.S. Defense Advanced Projects Agency (N66001-09-C-2082, HR0011-17-2-0069), the Veterans Affairs Health System, and Virology Quality Assurance (75N93019C00015). 


Provided by Duke Health

Scientists Use Holographic Imaging To Detect Viruses And Antibodies (Medicine)

A team of New York University scientists has developed a method using holographic imaging to detect both viruses and antibodies. The breakthrough has the potential to aid in medical diagnoses and, specifically, those related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

A rendering of 2019-ncov coronavirus. Photo credit: Maksim Tkachenko/Getty Images/NYU.

“Our approach is based on physical principles that have not previously been used for diagnostic testing,” explains David Grier, a professor of physics at NYU and one of the researchers on the project, which is reported in the journal Soft Matter. “We can detect antibodies and viruses by literally watching them stick to specially prepared test beads.”

If fully realized, this proposed test could be done in under 30 minutes, is highly accurate, and can be performed by minimally trained personnel. Moreover, the method can test for either the virus (current infection) or antibodies (immunity).

The scientists, who also include NYU doctoral candidates Kaitlynn Snyder and Rushna Quddus as well as NYU Chemistry Professor Kent Kirshenbaum and NYU Physics Professor Andy Hollingsworth, base their test on holographic video microscopy, which uses laser beams to record holograms of their test beads. The surfaces of the beads are activated with biochemical binding sites that attract either antibodies or virus particles, depending on the intended test. Binding antibodies or viruses causes the beads to grow by a few billionths of a meter, which the NYU researchers have shown they can detect through changes in the beads’ holograms.

“We can analyze a dozen beads per second,” explains Grier, “which means that we can cut the time for a reliable thousand-bead diagnostic test to 20 minutes. And we can measure those changes rapidly, reliably, and inexpensively.”

The holographic video microscopy is performed by an instrument, xSight, created by Spheryx, a New York-based company Grier co-founded.

The scientists also note the versatility of their method.

“This instrument can count virus particles dispersed in patients’ saliva and also detect and differentiate antibodies dissolved in their blood,” adds Grier. “This flexibility is achieved by changing the composition of the test beads to model what we are testing.

“Each type of bead tests for the presence of a particular target, but can also test for several targets simultaneously. Our holographic analysis distinguishes the different test beads by their size and by their refractive index–an easily controlled optical property.”

The scientists say that this capability can be used to develop libraries of test beads that may be combined into test kits for mixing with patient samples. This will support doctors in distinguishing among possible diagnoses, speeding patients’ treatment, reducing the risk of misdiagnosis, and cutting the cost of healthcare.

References: Kaitlynn Snyder, Rushna Quddus, Andrew D Hollingsworth, Kent Kirshenbaum and David G Grier, “Holographic Immunoassays: Direct Detection of Antibodies Binding to Colloidal Spheres”, Royal Society Of Chemistry, 2020. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2020/SM/D0SM01351J#!divAbstract

Provided by New York University

Risk of Severe COVID May Depend on Your Type of Asthma, Experts Say (Medicine)

Everyone agrees about the good news — folks whose asthma is spurred on by allergies don’t appear to have an increased risk of life-threatening illness if they contract COVID-19.

“Asthma has not risen as one of the top comorbid diseases for worse COVID-19 outcomes,” said Dr. Sandhya Khurana, director of the Mary Parkes Center for Asthma, Allergy and Pulmonary Care at the University of Rochester (N.Y.) Medical Center. “We always worry with asthma and viral infections, because they seem to trigger asthma exacerbation unreasonably. But what we’ve seen so far is reassuring.”

But debate continues to swirl regarding the potential severity of COVID infection in people with non-allergic asthma.

©gettyimages

Some studies have suggested that people who have asthma caused by something other than allergies — exercise, stress, air pollution, weather conditions — might have an increased risk of severe COVID-19.

For example, Harvard researchers found that having non-allergic asthma increased the risk of severe COVID-19 by as much as 48%. That conclusion was based on data from 65,000 asthma sufferers presented in the June issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

“For those people, I think being more cautious would be good for them,” said senior researcher Liming Liang, an associate professor of statistical genetics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston. “I think the next wave is coming. We’ve got to be more cautious.”

But other experts note that the data involving COVID and non-allergic asthma sufferers is very limited, and any conclusions that these folks are at higher risk of severe infection could be flawed.

Their asthma could be caused by other lung ailments that are associated with more serious cases of COVID, for instance, said Dr. Mitchell Grayson, chief of allergy and immunology at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

“There have been several studies that have shown that COPD does increase your risk of more severe disease,” he said. “I don’t think these studies have done a good job of excluding COPD in these patients.”

Grayson agrees with Khurana that in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was much concern that asthma could be a risk factor — a reasonable suspicion, given that the coronavirus attacks the lungs.

But everything that came out of the initial epidemic in China suggested that asthma was not a risk factor for life-threatening COVID, Grayson said, and the data continued to confirm that as the coronavirus spread across the globe.

“It’s not there in the data. If it is there, it’s extremely small risk. It’s nothing I can see,” he said.

Researchers have speculated that people with allergy-driven asthma might have some protection against COVID, due to the way the coronavirus infects the body.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 enters lung cells by engaging with a type of protein on their surface called an ACE2 receptor, Khurana said.

“In the setting of an allergic type of inflammation, the expression of the ACE2 receptor appears to be downregulated. It appears to be lower. There’s not as much receptor,” she said.

Because there aren’t as many ACE2 receptors available, people with allergic asthma might not be as vulnerable to severe infection, Khurana said. This theory also could help explain why other chronic diseases appear to increase COVID risk, she added.

“Patients in conditions like diabetes or hypertension, this receptor expression is increased,” Khurana said. “That’s a possible reason why those comorbid diseases are at especially high risk for this infection.”

But that only explains why allergic asthma isn’t a major risk factor for severe COVID, Grayson said. It doesn’t explain why some studies are finding increased risk among people with non-allergic asthma.

Grayson suspects that the purported link between non-allergic asthma and COVID found in these studies is actually a link between a COVID and a host of different lung ailments, especially COPD.

“There are studies showing that COPD increases your risk of more severe COVID, not markedly but a little bit, not to the extent of things like hypertension and diabetes and [being] elderly,” he said. “I’m concerned that what they’re calling non-allergic asthma actually is COPD, which would skew their data.”

In Khurana’s view, more study is needed, particularly prospective studies that track people with different types of asthma prior to COVID infection.

“So far, we just don’t know enough to make any conclusions. I think we’re still scratching the surface here and still have a lot to learn,” she said.

In the meantime, it would pay for everyone to protect themselves, Khurana added.

“It’s good practice to observe the recommended guidance on hand hygiene and social distancing and masking and avoiding any situation where you could be exposed, even though it’s obviously welcome to see that allergic asthma is not as high-risk as some of the other comorbid diseases,” Khurana said.

AI-Based ‘No-Touch Touchscreen’ Could Reduce Risk Of Pathogen Spread From Surfaces (Amazing Products)

A “no-touch touchscreen” developed for use in cars could also have widespread applications in a post-COVID-19 world, by reducing the risk of transmission of pathogens on surfaces.

The patented technology, known as “predictive touch,” was developed by engineers at the University of Cambridge as part of a research collaboration with Jaguar Land Rover. It uses a combination of artificial intelligence and sensor technology to predict a user’s intended target on touchscreens and other interactive displays or control panels, selecting the correct item before the user’s hand reaches the display.

More and more passenger cars have touchscreen technology to control entertainment, navigation or temperature control systems. However, users can often miss the correct item—for example due to acceleration or vibrations from road conditions—and have to reselect, meaning that their attention is taken off the road, increasing the risk of an accident.

In lab-based tests, driving simulators and road-based trials, the predictive touch technology was able to reduce interaction effort and time by up to 50% due to its ability to predict the user’s intended target with high accuracy early in the pointing task.

As lockdown restrictions around the world continue to ease, the researchers say the technology could also be useful in a post-COVID-19 world. Many everyday consumer transactions are conducted using touchscreens: ticketing at rail stations or cinemas, ATMs, check-in kiosks at airports, self-service checkouts in supermarkets, as well as many industrial and manufacturing applications. Eliminating the need to actually touch a touchscreen or other interactive display could reduce the risk of spreading pathogens—such as the common cold, influenza or even coronavirus—from surfaces.

In addition, the technology could also be incorporated into smartphones, and could be useful while walking or jogging, allowing users to easily and accurately select items without the need for any physical contact. It even works in situations such as a moving car on a bumpy road, or if the user has a motor disability which causes a tremor or sudden hand jerks, such as Parkinson’s disease or cerebral palsy.

“Touchscreens and other interactive displays are something most people use multiple times per day, but they can be difficult to use while in motion, whether that’s driving a car or changing the music on your phone while you’re running,” said Professor Simon Godsill from Cambridge’s Department of Engineering, who led the project. “We also know that certain pathogens can be transmitted via surfaces, so this technology could help reduce the risk for that type of transmission.”

The technology uses machine intelligence to determine the item the user intends to select on the screen early in the pointing task, speeding up the interaction. It uses a gesture tracker, including vision-based or RF-based sensors, which are increasingly common in consumer electronics; contextual information such as user profile, interface design, environmental conditions; and data available from other sensors, such as an eye-gaze tracker, to infer the user’s intent in real time.

“This technology also offers us the chance to make vehicles safer by reducing the cognitive load on drivers and increasing the amount of time they can spend focused on the road ahead. This is a key part of our Destination Zero journey,” said Lee Skrypchuk, Human Machine Interface Technical Specialist at Jaguar Land Rover.

It could also be used for displays that do not have a physical surface such as 2-D or 3-D projections or holograms. Additionally, it promotes inclusive design practices and offers additional design flexibilities, since the interface functionality can be seamlessly personalized for given users and the display size or location is no longer constrained by the user ability to reach-touch.

“Our technology has numerous advantages over more basic mid-air interaction techniques or conventional gesture recognition, because it supports intuitive interactions with legacy interface designs and doesn’t require any learning on the part of the user,” said Dr. Bashar Ahmad, who led the development of the technology and the underlying algorithms with Professor Godsill. “It fundamentally relies on the system to predict what the user intends and can be incorporated into both new and existing touchscreens and other interactive display technologies.”

This software-based solution for contactless interactions has reached high technology readiness levels and can be seamlessly integrated into existing touchscreens and interactive displays, so long as the correct sensory data is available to support the machine learning algorithm.

This article is republished here from University Of Cambridge under common creative licenses.

We Now Know, How COVID-19 Trigger Fatal Levels Of Lung Inflammation (Medicine)

A hallmark of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is SARS-CoV-2 infection of the facultative progenitors of lung alveoli, the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s). However, inability to access these cells from patients, particularly at early stages of disease, limits an understanding of disease inception.

Now, a team of infectious disease, pulmonary and regenerative medicine researchers at Boston University, studying human stem cell-derived lung cells called type 2 pneumocytes, infected with SARS-CoV-2, have shown that the virus initially suppresses the lung cells’ ability to call in the help of the immune system with interferons to fight off the viral invaders and instead activates an inflammatory pathway called NFkB.

According to the researchers, the inflammatory signals initiated by the infected pneumocytes attract an army of immune cells into lung tissue laden with infected and already dead and dying cells. Their data confirms that SARS-CoV-2 blocks cells from activating one of the anti-viral branches of the immune system early on after infection has set in. The signal the cells would typically send out, a tiny protein called interferon that they exude under threat of disease, are instead delayed for several days, giving SARS-CoV-2 plenty of time to spread and kill cells, triggering a buildup of dead cell debris and other inflammation.

References: Jessie Huang et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infection of Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Human Lung Alveolar Type 2 Cells Elicits a Rapid Epithelial-Intrinsic Inflammatory Response, Cell Stem Cell (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2020.09.013