Tag Archives: #europeans

Ancient Genomes Shed New Light On the Earliest Europeans And Their Relationships With Neandertals (Archeology)

An international research team has sequenced the genomes of the oldest securely dated modern humans in Europe who lived around 45,000 years ago in Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria. By comparing their genomes to the genomes of people who lived later in Europe and in Asia the researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, show that this early human group in Europe contributed genes to later people, particularly present-day East Asians. The researchers also identified large stretches of Neandertal DNA in the genomes of the Bacho Kiro Cave people, showing that they had Neandertal ancestors about five to seven generations back in their family histories. This suggests that mixture with Neandertals was the rule rather than the exception when the first modern humans arrived in Europe.

Last year, a research team led by researchers from the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, reported the discovery of modern human remains found in direct association with the Initial Upper Palaeolithic stone tools at the site of Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria. The oldest individuals found in the cave were directly radiocarbon dated to between 43,000 and 46,000 years ago. They are thus the earliest known dispersal of modern humans across the mid-latitudes of Eurasia.

Mateja Hajdinjak and colleagues have now sequenced the genomes of five individuals found at the Bacho Kiro Cave. Four individuals are between 43,000 to 46,000-years-old and were found together with stone tools belonging to the Initial Upper Palaeolithic, the earliest culture associated with modern humans in Eurasia. An additional individual found in the cave is around 35,000-years-old and found with stone tools of a later type. It was previously thought that bearers of the Initial Upper Palaeolithic died out without contributing genetically to modern humans arriving later. However, the researchers now show that the oldest Bacho Kiro Cave individuals, or groups closely related to them, contributed genes to present-day people. Surprisingly, this contribution is found particularly in East Asia and the Americas rather than in Europe where the Bacho Kiro Cave people lived. These genetic links to Asia mirror the links seen between the Initial Upper Palaeolithic stone tools and personal ornaments found in Bacho Kiro Cave and tools and ancient jewelry found across Eurasia to Mongolia.

Genetic differences between individuals

Second lower molar of a modern human found in Bacho Kiro Cave in the Main sector associated with the Initial Upper Palaeolithic stone tools. Genome-wide data from this individual indicates that he had a Neandertal ancestor less than six generations before he lived. Another human fragment from the same individual was found in the Layer I in the Niche 1 area of the cave. © MPI-EVA/ Rosen Spasov

Importantly, the later 35,000-year-old individual found in Bacho Kiro Cave belonged to a group that was genetically distinct from the earlier inhabitants of the cave. This shows that the earliest history of modern humans in Europe may have been tumultuous and involved population replacements.

The earliest people at Bacho Kiro Cave lived at a time when Neandertals were still around. The researchers therefore scanned their genomes for fragments of Neandertal DNA.  ”We found that the Bacho Kiro Cave individuals had higher levels of Neandertal ancestry than nearly all other early humans, with the exception of a 40,000-year-old individual from Romania. Crucially, most of this Neandertal DNA comes in extremely long stretches. This shows that these individuals had Neandertal ancestors some five to seven generations back in their family trees” says Mateja Hajdinjak.

Although only a handful of genomes from modern humans who lived at the same time in Eurasia as some of the last Neandertals have been recovered, nearly all of them have recent Neandertal ancestors. “The results suggest that the first modern humans that arrived in Eurasia mixed frequently with Neandertals. They may even have become absorbed into resident Neandertal populations. Only later on did larger modern human groups arrive and replace the Neandertals” says Svante Pääbo, who coordinated the genetic research.

Featured image: The Niche 1 sector (left) and the Main sector (right) during the excavations of Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria, in 2016. The cement area in the foreground was previously excavated in the 1970s. New excavations picked up where these excavations left off. © MPI-EVA/ Nikolay Zaheriev

Reference: Mateja Hajdinjak, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Laurits Skov, Benjamin Vernot, Alexander Hübner, Qiaomei Fu, Elena Essel, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Julia Richter, Oana Teodora Moldovan, Silviu Constantin, Elena Endarova, Nikolay Zahariev, Rosen Spasov, Frido Welker, Geoff M. Smith, Virginie Sinet-Mathiot, Lindsey Paskulin, Helen Fewlass, Sahra Talamo, Željko Rezek, Svoboda Sirakova, Nikolay Sirakov, Shannon P. McPherron, Tsenka Tsanova, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Benjamin M. Peter, Matthias Meyer, Pontus Skoglund, Janet Kelso and Svante Pääbo, “Initial Upper Palaeolithic humans in Europe had recent Neanderthal ancestry”, Nature; 7 April, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03335-3 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03335-3

Provided by Max Planck Gesellschaft

Why Chinese Look Like Chinese? Indians Look like Indians?…… Well, I Have An Answer (Biology)

Did we look different from each other, right from the past..?? Today by just looking at faces we can differentiate if the person belongs to China, India, Russia etc.. But what if I say, we all look same in the past.. Yeah its true, there were no countries, no religion, no discrimination, no hate.. We used to live with each other happily like a family.. Wanna know lets travel back 3 lakh years before..

We all used to live in Africa at that time. The environment was warm and naturally rich. We all looked same. Our only objective was ‘survival’. As one couldn’t able to survive alone, we used to live and hunt in groups and stay at one place. Earth was actually the heaven at that time as there were no racism. And yeah, our ancestors prefer grass bedding to create comfortable areas for sleeping and working on, at least 2 lakh years ago.

These beds consisting of sheaves of grass of the broad-leafed Panicoideae subfamily were placed near the back of the cave on ash layers. The layers of ash was used to protect our ancestors against crawling insects while sleeping. Our ancestors also used hot springs as a cooking resource to boil fresh kills, long before humans are thought to have used fire as a controlled source for cooking.

But around 1.3 lakh years before, an interglacial period changed everything. Climate of the earth started increasing rapidly and this started melting icy routes which goes out of Africa. So, some of our ancestors decided to migrate to other countries, while others decided to stay in Africa. Our migrating ancestors took only required food with them, while shared remaining with others. This act of kindness we call today, ‘Law of Sharing’.

Out of Africa, our ancestors went to levantine regions first and started spreading to Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and Turkey.. And just after 1000 years, some of them migrated towards europe and asia. And for 40000 years, our ancestors had spread to India and China. And that’s how 4 human raeces born.

Do you know, that 4 human races? They are white/Caucasian, Mongoloid/Asian, Negroid/Black, and Australoid. According to darwin theory of evolution, Indians are the mixture of Caucasian, australiazoid and mongoloid. North India people have more caucasoin genes, South India have more Australiazoid genes. While, North East have mongoloid genes..

But what about china? Well friends, they all belongs to mongolian races. But the question is, why they have small eyes and flat faces. Friends, its not because god created them like this, that was the gift given to them by evolution through natural selection. Yeah friends, when they came to siberia from africa. It was necessary to protect eyes from snow blindness and natural selection given them low exposure eyes i.e. squinty eyes, to protect them against it..

But what about their flat facial features? You know well about the siberia’s extreme cold temperatures. In order to survive such extreme cold temperatures it is necessary to prevent heat loss. So, natural selection bought changes in their facial features and had given them extra face fat. It also helped them to eat icy-meats. Epicanthel fold is also believed to have evolved in them in order to provide defense from the extreme cold and extreme light that occur in Eurasian arctic and northern regions.

But what about Europeans? How they got their pale colour? Ancestors who were migrated to northern latitudes often don’t get enough UV to synthesize vitamin D in their skin so natural selection has favored two genetic solutions to that problem—evolving pale skin that absorbs UV more efficiently or favoring lactose tolerance to be able to digest the sugars and vitamin D naturally found in milk. That’s why we look different from each other. Share it as much as you can and make people aware of truth.. Because knowledge can only save this beautiful world from ‘destruction’ which may cause from ‘discrimination’..

You can read more about the evolution of human face on the article given below:


Copyright of this article totally belongs to uncover reality.. Author of this article is S. Aman.. One is allowed to use it only by giving proper credit to author and to us.